Sunday, June 15, 2008



What crops into our minds when we think of Africa? A continent mired in perpetual darkness and from which no good can emanate? A land populated by one-eyed intellectuals, groping blindly in search of solutions to endless problems? A land raped, imbued with starvation, diseases and superstition? The answer, sadly, is in the affirmative.

Some eminent Western intellectuals, in whose hands it fell to give a true account of the glorious achievements of the Black race, the barbaric institution of slavery having muzzled their voices, focused instead on the periphery of Black accomplishments and only had ignominious words to say. One such was Voltaire, who said in his supreme ignorance, “The round eyes of the Negroes, their flat nose, thick lips, ears of different shape, the wool on their heads, the measure of their intelligence, place between them and other species prodigious differences.” (1)

Yet from this despised continent and her peoples emerged the foundations of world civilization. My purpose therefore in writing this book is to help shed light on the fact that Blacks, widely considered to be the scum of the Earth, have in actual fact contributed immensely to world civilization.

For the writing of this project, I referred to a number of sources that gave me insight and knowledge about Black history. After painstaking, time-consuming research, I finally managed to obtain enough information for the completion of this work. Some of the most important sources have evidently been labeled unworthy since they cannot be found on the shelves of major or minor bookstores and libraries. My fervent desire to reveal the truth about the immense contribution Blacks have made to the history of Mankind led to the creation of this work.

Some years ago, I had a candid discussion with a fellow Black who did his utmost to assure me of the fact that Blacks have never played any role in Biblical antiquity. Blacks have played very significant roles throughout the Bible, but its history has been distorted beyond recognition.

There is a lot of evidence to prove that Black mariners have been to the Americas before Christopher Columbus. The Nubian monarchy (in modern-day Sudan) is the oldest in recorded history, even before Europe dreamt of a monarchy. It was Aesop, a Black man who introduced his fables, using animals as characters into Greece. He inspired LaFontaine, the French writer; to begin his own fables and has had a profound impact on Western thought and morals. Aesop also influenced other famous personalities like Caxton, Shakespeare, Aristophanes, Socrates, Plato, Solon, Aristotle, Julius Caesar, Cicero and others.

Blacks built the pyramids of Egypt and the Sphinx. A close examination of the mummies has revealed that most of the Pharaohs came from Nubia and were Blacks. Seti I, Thutmose III, Tutankamen, Imhotep (the famed Prime Minister to the Pharaoh Zoser) and Rameses II were all Blacks. So were Khufu, (called Cheops by the Greeks) Amenhotep III (Amenophis) Ahmose I (Amos), Pharaoh Mentuhotep I (founder of the Eleventh dynasty), Mycerinus and Pharaoh Sesotris I of the twelfth Dynasty.

Thutmose III was the son of a Sudanese woman, and played a great role in Egyptian Imperialism. He hatched plans for world domination and is also believed to be the inspirer of the tales of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, as well as Homer’s Trojan horse in his monumental work, The Iliad. His able General, Thuty, made a conquest by capturing the town of Joppa with five hundred soldiers hidden in jars. (2) Thutmose III never lost a battle and he displayed great mercy towards his conquered foes. One of his obelisks was erected in Central Park in New York City and another was set up on the banks of the river Thames in London.

The Black Egyptians began to lose their color due to mixing with successive foreign invaders and settlers. Mass migrations by the Blacks to escape their oppressors ultimately led to the takeover of Egypt by foreigners. The Persians invaded in 525 BC. The Macedonians under Alexander the Great were next. Then it was Julius Caesar with his Roman Legions in 50 BC, followed by the Arabs in 640 AD. Other invaders included the Turks, the French and the British.

The Hyksos (sometimes called Shepherd Kings by some historians) also invaded Egypt in ancient times, about 1675 BC. They are believed to be White peoples or quasi-White although they have been classified as Semites. The word “Semite” is misleading. It refers more to geographic location and culture than to race. The Hyksos are believed to have originated from the Southern parts of the Caucasus Mountains and made their capital at Mitani in Syria and Assyria. These nomadic invaders later penetrated the Middle East and settled among the Blacks there, mixing with them. They managed to subdue Egypt at a time the Black Land had been weakened from internal struggles.

Scholars still differ as to the racial makeup of the Hyksos. To some, the Hyksos were Black giants. To others they were Hittites from Asia Minor. While the Hitties of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey, Greece, Syria, Iran, Iraq, parts of Palestine etc.) were originally black, some were eventually absorbed by Indo-Europeans and so lost their identity. Some believe they were not of homogeneous race, while others believe they were Black Phoenicians (Canaanites). It appears that they were composed of different races, with a significant Black presence.

In 1829, the British antiquary Godfrey Higgins stated in his book, Celtic Druids (using as his source Faber’s Origin of Pagan Idol):

Mr Faber then goes on to show that the PHOENICIANS, the Anakim, the Philistim, the Palli, and the Egyptian Shepherd Kings, were all descendants of Cush, or Cushites; which the translators of the Septuagint always render by the word Ethiopians, which, in fact, in the Greek language means nothing but blacks, (but not necessarily Negroes,) and as such it might very properly be translated. (3)

The Hyksos established the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties in Egypt, dynasties regarded by the Blacks of Egypt as the “Great Humiliation,” as they had to endure several indignities and the erosion of their culture and very lives. These barbaric invaders destroyed the monuments and temples of Egypt. Some historians believe that the Hebrews came to Egypt at this time to settle and to trade. The Hyksos treated the Hebrews better than the indigenous Black Egyptians. They made them their allies, clerks, assistants and so on.

Due to the presence of various White invaders of ancient Egypt, some of who ruled as to illegitimate Pharaohs, detractors of Black accomplishments have claimed that White peoples were the originators of Egyptian Civilization. The high-culture of Egypt was full-blown before the arrival of the Hyskos and other invaders. The Egyptologist, Margaret A. Murray, has pointed out that “The Hyksos were an illiterate people and have left no records, with the exception of scarabs. Even these have often only muddled hieroglyphs, showing that the wearers were not able to read them. Scarabs of earlier periods are found in great numbers in southern Palestine with other Egyptian objects, which prove that long before the invasion the Hyksos were in constant touch with Egypt.” (4)

The Hyksos lived in Egypt for over four hundred years (two hundred years or less according to some historians), mixing with the indigenous Blacks, and exterminating them. They did not rule over the whole of Egypt, however, but were mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the Delta and Lower Egypt (i.e. the northern part of Egypt) with their capital at Avaris.

During the era of Apophis, the Hyksos ruler, the Egyptian Blacks under their leader Sekenenre Tao II, (son of Sekenenre Tao I) his sister-wife, Ahhotep I and his son Kamose launched a massive war of liberation from the city of Wo-se’ or Thebes in Upper Egypt. (5) Sekenenre Tao II was, however, killed in battle and his mummy indicates he suffered serious head and neck injuries, probably from ax blows and other weapons. Kamose continued with the struggle, defeating the Hyksos in a number of battles and after his death a few years later (also believed to be in battle), his brother Ahmose I succeeded him and decisively defeated the Hyksos, capturing Memphis and overrunning their capital at Avaris. The Black Egyptians finally defeated the Hyksos and drove their rulers and followers out of Egypt. Although the Hyksos managed to flee to the Middle East, the Black Egyptians under Thutmoses III launched several military campaigns against their cities for several years. A large number of these Hyksos and other foreigners of different nations were, however, permanently settled in Egypt and more intermixture changed the racial characteristics of the Blacks.

Kamose was the last Theban King of the Seventeenth Dynasty (1645-1567 BC). The succeeding dynasty, the Eighteenth Dynasty, was a great period in Egyptian history, with notable Black leaders such as Ahmose I, the founder of this dynasty and his wife, the Black Queen Nefertari. Others were Amenhotep II, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Queen Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I, Amenhotep III, Ikhnaton, and Tutankhamen. Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited and this civilization was known as the “New Empire” or the “New Kingdom.” Those Whites that bore no animosity towards Blacks were integrated into the Empire.

Some scholars believe that the Hyksos were Hebrews. They were not, although there were probably Hebrews among them when they invaded Egypt. The Hyksos have been wrongly labeled ‘Shepherd Kings’ and ‘Children of Israel.’ The word ‘Hyksos’ or ‘Hekshus’ was derived from the Egyptian ‘Hek’ meaning a ruler or King, and ‘Shus’ meaning servants, rather than the word ‘Shasu,’ meaning Shepherds. The Hek-Shus were, therefore, the captive-kings or servant-rulers. The Hekshus called themselves servants of their god, and were rivals of the Osirian religion. (6) The Shasu are said to be the Israelites or Hebrews. (7) According to the Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop, “…those most detested by the Egyptians were the Asian Shepherds of all kinds, from the Semites to the Indo-Europeans.” (8)

It is also believed that the word Hyksos is the Greek rendering of the Egyptian hiq-khase, hiq meaning ruler or chieftain, and khase, meaning “foreign hill-countries”. Hyksos therefore means “chieftain of a foreign-hill country.” (9) The Greek mistranslation of hiq-khase as Hyksos, meaning Shepherd-Kings, is therefore erroneous. It should be realized that the Egyptian priest, Manetho of Sebennytos, (Third Century B.C.) who mentioned the Shepherds, wrote his chronicle on Egypt in Greek. He based his work on translations from old Egyptian records. Much of his work is lost, although fragments have been preserved in the works of writers such as Eusebius and Julius Africanus. According to Flavius Josephus, Manetho also referred to the Shepherds as captives.

Some historians believe that the Hyksos were the Habiru (Apiru in Egyptian) and therefore Hebrews. However, as Georges Roux has pointed out, “…the Habiru have nothing in common with the Hebrews but a similitude of name. They were neither a people nor a tribe, but a class of society made up of refugees, of ‘displaced persons’ as we would now say, who frequently turned into outlaws.” (10)

Whatever the true origin of the word “Hyksos,” our main concern here is with the racial origin of those invaders of ancient Egypt who have been termed Shepherd-Kings and to distinguish them from the Black Hebrews.

It is generally believed that the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot to Egypt. However, there are paintings of horses and chariots in caves in the Sahara, dating from a very early period. The Garamantes, for instance, made use of horses and chariots. (11)

On the black color of the ancient Egyptians, so much has been proved as to make any objections futile. Although a significant number of people believe that the present occupants of North Africa are the original occupants of that region, they fail to recognize the fact that that area has been downtrodden under the heels of successive invaders. Herodotus has claimed that the Colchians were Egyptians since like them they had “black skins and woolly hair.” (The Histories, Book Two, 104). Ancient historians such as Plutarch, Flavius Josephus, Celus and Eusebius have also claimed that the Hebrews were Ethiopians and Egyptians who migrated to Canaan. (12)

The French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, was incensed when he discovered this once great African civilization. He was not enamored of Black accomplishments. He conquered Egypt as part of his military strategy and also because of his desire to unlock the secrets of ancient Egypt, which he believed to be the source of Masonic knowledge. Like many renowned individuals of his era, Napoleon Bonaparte was a freemason. In 1798 he sent architects, surveyors, and about 25,000 soldiers to Egypt. Some of those involved in Theosophist, Masonic and Rosicrucian societies believe they have a heritage in Ancient Egypt. They believe that the passages and chambers in the Great Pyramid were centers of initiation ceremonies. As a matter of fact many of the founding fathers of America were masons. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams as well as Benjamin Franklin and Lafayette were all masons of high degree.

As revealed in Anthony Browder’s book, From the Browder File, and in other works, the founding fathers of America built that nation on Egyptian architecture, symbols and science. Their purpose was to make use of African knowledge to make America a great nation. African knowledge is enshrined in the U.S. dollar bill. The Great Seal of America, for instance, is based on the symbol of Heru (Horus) the Black god. This is the sacred falcon. The founding fathers of America substituted it with an eagle. In the talons of the falcon are the “shen,” the African symbol of infinity, while above it is the Ankh. These symbols represent eternal or everlasting life. They have been in use for thousands of years.

The eagle in the Great Seal of America has 13 leaves and 13 berries on the olive branch in the right talon, 13 arrows grasped in the left talon, 13 stripes on the shield, a six-pointed star made up of 13 stars, 13 stones in the pyramid and so on. They are believed to represent the 13 original colonies. As Anthony Browder says in his aforementioned work, “For years the number 13 has come to represent powers of transformation and rebirth. Twelve has come to symbolize the completion of a cycle and 13 represents the energy of that cycle transcending itself into a higher, often spiritual, plane of existence.” (13)

Thus we see Jesus Christ with 12 disciples, the sun and the zodiac, King Arthur and the twelve Knights of the Round Table. There are also the 12 tribes of Israel and the 12 gates of heaven as mentioned in Revelations of the Holy Bible. On the seal there is also a pyramid with 13 steps and above is the eye of Horus, a symbol of light and vision. In addition, there are 13 letters in the motto carried by the eagle, E PLURIBUS UNUM (Out of many, one) and ANNUIT COEPTIS (He has prospered our beginning).

The Washington monument is an African obelisk, which in the words of Anthony Browder, “was symbolic of the regenerative powers of God.” The obelisk is a symbol of the Black Egyptian god, Osiris. Meridian Hill Park was also designed in such a way that it is aligned to the same meridian that passes through Egypt. The Lincoln memorial was also designed in honor of a temple of Rameses II of Egypt. No credit has been given to Africans in the use of their symbols to regenerate America. America, it should be noted, was made great by the contributions of Black Africans who worked freely for about four hundred years. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were also written in Masonic code and have different meanings to different masons. Lots of other African knowledge can be found in Washington D.C., which was designed by the gifted Black scientist Benjamin Banneker.

Napoleon Bonaparte ordered his soldiers to destroy the Sphinx with rifle and cannon fire. They were unsuccessful and only managed to destroy the nose and appearance of the sphinx. In fact other vandals have also tried to destroy the sphinx. Napoleon Bonaparte also gave his soldiers orders to raise the coffins of the Pharaohs and burn as well as disfigure their faces, with a concentration on their lips and noses. The French scientist, Volney, on seeing the Sphinx, concluded that the features “were precisely those of a Negro.”

Baron Vivant Denon, who made the first known on-site sketch of the Sphinx in 1798 showing its Black features, before its attempted destruction by Napoleon and his soldiers, claims that:

The character is African…the lips are thick…Art must have been at a high pitch when this monument was executed. (14)

It was the same Baron Denon who claimed that it was his own Frenchmen, the soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte, who “blew asunder the nose and lips of the Sphinx of Ghizeh with repeated blasts of cannon fire…” (15)

According to the Arab historian, El-Makrizi, it was a Sufi Monk, one Sa’im al-Dahr who broke off the nose of the Sphinx. If true he probably did a very bad job of it since Gaspero tells us that the destruction can be attributed to the Mamelukes as written in his work, The Dawn of Civilization. Yet Gaspero was not there when such action took place.

It has also been said that the Persian King, Cambyses, after conquering Egypt tried unsuccessfully for two years to destroy the pyramids. He is also said to have “disfigured the Sphinx with battering-rams.” Jealousy also led Cambyses to destroy the beautiful city of Memphis. (16)

From all accounts it would seem that Baron Viviant Denon’s is the most reliable since he witnessed the destruction of the Sphinx’s visage by the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte.

When Herodotus (called the Father of History by Cicero in the first century B.C, although Plutarch called him the Father of Lies), came to Egypt from his native Greece, he was surprised to find that the pyramids were already as old as antiquity. Herodotus was in actual fact a Greek citizen of Ionian birth. Ionia was then an Egyptian colony. Like other Greeks, Herodotus owed much of his knowledge to the Black Egyptians. He described the Egyptians he met as black. Even after mixing with successive invaders and settlers, the Egyptians were still clearly black.

Pythagoras, Plato, Thales, Anaximander, Solon, Democritus and the best minds of Greece came to study under the Black Egyptian priests/professors. These Egyptians were responsible for teaching Pythagoras his theorem, which later became known as Pythagoras’ theorem. This theory had long been known to the Egyptians and is scientifically embodied in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Gizeh. Lycurgus, the lawgiver, also studied in Egypt and the knowledge he acquired there served as the political and legal foundation of Western politics. The Greeks took the knowledge in various disciplines that they had learnt in Africa back to their homelands and incorporated it into their civilization. This knowledge later spread to the rest of Europe.

The French Scientist Count C.F. Volney visited Egypt in 1787. He saw at first hand the ruins of the magnificent African monuments and later wrote in The Ruins of Empires (1789):

There are a people, now forgotten, discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men, now rejected from society for their sable skin and frizzled hair, founded on the study of the laws of nature, those civil and religious systems, which still govern the universe.

These words appeared in the translator’s preface in the original edition, but were expunged in the American reprint.

Jesus Christ, the great Messiah, was a black man. The original Hebrews were Blacks. The Whites who later appeared in Palestine passed as Jews. Blacks are the true Jews. There is an ancient Roman coin in the British Museum with one side depicting the image of the Emperor Justinian II that circulated in Byzantium. The other side depicts Jesus Christ with woolly hair. According to the Cambridge Encyclopedia Co. as cited by J.A. Rogers in the first volume of his Sex and Race, “Whatever the fact, this coin places beyond doubt the belief that Jesus Christ was a Negro.” (17)

Further examples could be given, but in the final analysis it is clear that black achievement can only materialize through black initiative. Black portrayal throughout the world has been predominately negative. We have a moral responsibility to teach our children the truth about black achievement, about the high level of civilization Blacks had once attained while Europe was still asleep.

It is our responsibility to reverse the negativity we face day in and day out. We must RETAKE OUR FAME AND LET IT BE A LASTING ONE.

Saturday, June 14, 2008

George Wells Parker - The African Origin of the Grecian Civilization

It is not widely known that early Greece and in fact Europe was once the domain of the Black race. the early Blacks of Greece were known by names such as Pelasgians. Whites were later arivals. The black Minoan civilization was already in full-bloom before the arrival of other invaders.

George Wells Parker's speech is still a classic. It was delivered to the Omaha Philosophical Society on April 1, 1917 and published in "The Journal of Negro History," Volume 2, 1917.


[Pg 334]
The African Origin of the Grecian Civilization[401]

I imagine, ladies and gentlemen, that when you first read the subject of the address to be delivered before this society to-day, you were a bit surprised, and, I trust, a bit interested. To claim an African origin for the Grecian civilization is hardly in keeping with the historical traditions inherited from our school days. It savors of a sort of heresy and passes far beyond the limits of popular opinion. There is a peculiar unanimity among all historians to state without reservation that the greatest civilization the world has ever known was pre-eminently Aryan, but historians are not always to be relied upon. They write for their own race and times and are careful to give as little credit as possible to races and events which fall within the pale of their prejudices. I question, however, if there is to be gained any ultimate good by subverting truth and popularizing error. Indeed, I believe that if to-day our historians, authors, press and pulpit would give the public the truth as far as it is possible to attain it, to-morrow would find us filled with a new vigor and a fresh determination to conquer the wrongs and inconsistencies of human life.

The old idea of the Grecian civilization was that it sprung, like Minerva, full armed from the brow of Zeus. It seemed to have no tangible beginning. The fabled kings and heroes of the Homeric Age, with their palaces and strongholds, were said to have been humanized sun-myths; their deeds but songs woven by wandering minstrels to win their meed of bread. Yet there has always been a suspicion among scholars that this view was wrong. The more we study the moral aspects of humanity the more we become convinced that the flower and fruit of civilization are evolved according to laws as immutable as those laws governing the manifestations of physical life. Historians have written that Greece was invaded by Aryans about 1400 B.C., and that henceforth arose the wonderful civilization; but the student knows that such was an impossibility and that some vital factor has been left out of the equation. When the Aryans invaded Greece they were savages[Pg 335] from Neolithic Europe and could not possibly have possessed the high artistic capacities and rich culture necessary for the unfolding of Ægean civilization. "Of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes."

Speaking of the two foremost Grecian states, Herodotus writes as follows: "These are the Lacedæmonians and Athenians, the former of Doric, the latter of Ionic blood. And, indeed, these two nations had held from very early times the most distinguished place in Greece, the one being Pelasgic, the other a Hellenic people, and the one having never quitted its original seas, while the other had been excessively migratory." "The Hellenes," wrote Professor Boughton in the Arena some years ago, "were the Aryans first to be brought into contact with these sunburnt Hamites, who, let it be remembered, though classed as whites, were probably as strongly Nigritic as are the Afro-Americans." "Greek art is not αυτοχθονυς," said Thiersch some fifty years ago, "but we derived from the Pelasgians, who, being blood relations of the Egyptians, undoubtedly brought the knowledge from Egypt." "The aptitude for art among all nations of antiquity," remarked Count de Gobineau a few years later, "was derived from an amalgamation with black races. The Egyptians, Assyrians and Etruscans were nothing but half-breeds, mulattoes." In the year 1884 Alexander Winchell, the famous American geologist, upset Americans with an article appearing in the North American Review. From it I quote the following: "The Pelasgic empire was at its meridian as early as 2500 B.C. This people came from the islands of the Ægean, and more remotely from Asia Minor. They were originally a branch of the sunburnt Hamitic stock that laid the basis of civilization in Canaan and Mesopotamia, destined later to be Semitized. Danaus and his daughters—that is, the fugitive 'shepherds' from Egypt—sought refuge among their Hamitic kindred in the Peloponnesus about 1700 B.C. Three hundred years before this these Pelasgians had learned the art of weaving from Aryan immigrants. In time they occupied the whole of Greece and Thessaly. Before 200 B.C. they established themselves in Italy. Thus do we get a conception of a vast Hamitic empire existing in prehistoric times, whose several nationalities were centered in Mesopotamia, Canaan, Egypt, Northwestern Africa, Iberia, Greece, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Central Europe—an intellectual ethnic family, the first of the Adamites to emerge into historic light, but with the records of its achievements buried in gloom[Pg 336] almost as dense as that which covers the ruder populations that the Hamites everywhere displaced. To this family, chiefly, are to be traced the dark complexions of the nations and tribes still dwelling around the shores of the Mediterranean."

It was to be expected that such statements as the foregoing would throw the scholastic world into a ferment. There was a scramble to bolster up the cause of Aryanism and to preserve this one civilization, at least, to the credit of the Caucasian race. Homer was scanned with a patience unknown to college students and the classic myths were refined in the alembics of master minds. Yet there were some who cared for truth more than for racial glory and among them was Dr. Schlieman. Armed with a spade he went to the classic lands and brought to light a real Troy; at Tiryns and Mycenæ he laid to view the palaces and tombs and treasures of Homeric kings. His message back to scholars who waited tensely for his verdict was, "It looks to me like the civilization of an African people." A new world opened to archeologists and the Ægean became the Mecca of the world. Traces of this prehistoric civilization began to make their appearance far beyond the limits of Greece itself. From Cyprus and Palestine to Sicily and Southern Italy, and even to the coasts of Spain, the colonial and industrial enterprise of the Myceneans has left its mark throughout the Mediterranean basin. The heretics were vindicated. "Whether they like it or not," declared Sir Arthur Evans before the London Hellenic Society a short time ago, "classical students must consider origins. The Grecians whom we discern in the new dawn were not the pale-skinned northerners, but essentially the dark-haired, brown-complexioned race." Perhaps Sir Arthur's words will carry weight with you when I remark that his wonderful discoveries in classical lands have brought him the honor of election last year as president of the British Association, the most notable assemblage of scholars in the world. I might further mention that Professor Sergi, of the University of Rome, has founded a new study of the origin of European civilization upon the remarkable archeological finds, entitled "The Mediterranean Race." From this masterly work I choose the following: "Until recent years the Greeks and Romans were regarded as Aryans, and then as Aryanized peoples; the great discoveries in the Mediterranean have overturned all these views. To-day, although a few belated supporters of Aryanism still remain, it is becoming clear that the most ancient civilization of the Mediterranean[Pg 337] is not of Aryan origin. The Aryans were savages when they invaded Europe; they destroyed in part the superior civilization of the Neolithic populations, and could not have created the Græco-Latin civilization. The primitive populations of Europe originated in Africa and the basin of the Mediterranean was the chief center of movement when the African migrations reached the center and north of Europe."

What, then, are some of those discoveries which have so completely destroyed the ethnic fetish of the Caucasian race? The greatest and most conclusive of them all was the discovery of the palace of Minos by Sir Arthur Evans. In 1894 this scientist undertook a series of exploration campaigns in central and eastern Crete; it has so happened that some years previous he had been hunting out ancient engraved stones at Athens and came upon some three or four-sided seals showing on each of their faces groups of hieroglyphics and linear signs distinct from the Egyptian and Hittite, but evidently representing some form of script. Upon inquiry Sir Arthur learned that these seals had been found in Crete, and to Crete he went. The legends of the famous labyrinth and palace of Minos came back to him and were refreshed by the gossipy peasants, who repeated the tales that had come down as ancestral memories. In wandering around the site of his proposed labors Sir Arthur noticed some ruined walls, the great gypsum blocks of which were engraved with curious symbolic characters, crowning the southern slope of a hill known as Kephala, overlooking the ancient site of Knossos, the city of Minos. It was the prelude to the discovery of the ruins of a palace, the most wonderful archeological find of modern times.

Who was Minos? In the myths that have come down to us he was a sort of an Abraham, a friend of God, and often appears as almost identical with his native Zeus. He was the founder and ruler of the royal city of Knossos, the Cretan Moses, who every nine years repaired to the famous cave of Zeus whether on the Cretan Ida or on Dicta, and received from the god of the mountain the laws for his people. He was powerful and great and extended his dominions far and wide over the Ægean Isles and coast lands, and even Athens paid to him its tribute of men and maidens. To him is attributed the founding of the great Minoan civilization.

I will not have time today to review the mass of archeological data which the discoveries of this civilization have produced.[Pg 338] They consist of cyclopean ruins of cities and strongholds, tombs, vases, statues, votive bronzes, and exquisitely engraved gems and intaglios. That which is most valuable in establishing the claim of the African origin of the Grecian civilization is the discovery of the frescoes on the palace walls. These opened up a new epoch in painting and are of the utmost interest to the world. The colors are almost as brilliant as when laid down more than three thousand years ago. Among these frescoes are numerous representations of the race whose civilization they represent. It was a race neither Aryan nor Semitic, but African. The portraitures follow the Egyptian precedent and for the first time the mysterious Minoan and Mycenean people rise before us. The tint of the flesh is of a deep reddish brown and the limbs finely moulded. The profile of the face is pure and almost classically Greek. The hair is black and curling and the lips somewhat full, giving the entire physiognomy a distinct African cast. In the women's quarters the frescoes show them to be much fairer, the difference in complexion being due, probably, to the seclusion of harem life. But in their countenances, too, remain those distinguishable features which link with the African race.

You will pardon me, I trust, if occasion is taken here to impress upon you the value of genuine archeological evidence. Historians may write anything to reflect their vanity or their prejudices, but when the remains of ancient civilizations rise out of the dust and sands and give the lie to their assertions there is nothing more to be said. Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenecia, Greece, and Rome, have all been claimed for the Aryan, but the spade has unearthed stone that bears sentient witness to the fact that Africa has been the pioneer in the field of civilization. We wonder, then, why the historians continue to ignore these remains and persist in continuing falsehood. There can be but one answer and that is racial vanity prefers falsehood to truth and prejudice demands suppression rather than expression.

Yet these frescoes of Crete need not be such a surprise to scholars and public after all. The very classics themselves have more than hinted of the great part played by Africa in the development of Grecian civilization. Let us revert to the myths and trace the descent of Minos and his progeny. You will recollect that the ancient heroes of Greece were divided into the older and younger branches, the former belonging to the house of Inachus, distinctly[Pg 339] Hamitic, while the latter belonged to the race of Japotus, distinctly a mixture.

The Pelasgic races of the south traced their descent from Inachus, the river god and son of Oceanus. The son of Inachus, Phoroneus, lived in the Peloponnesus and founded the town of Argos. He was succeeded by his son, Pelasgus, from whom the aforementioned races of the south derived their name. Io, the divine sister of Phoroneus, had the good fortune, or perhaps misfortune, to attract the attention of the all-loving Zeus and as a consequence incurred the enmity of Hera. She is transformed into a beautiful heifer by Zeus, but a gadfly sent by Hera torments her until she is driven mad and starts upon those famous wanderings which became the subject of many of the most celebrated stories of antiquity. Æschylus reviews her roamings in his great tragedy, "Prometheus Bound," and makes Io to arrive at Mount Caucasus to which the fire-bringer is chained. It is here that Prometheus delivers to her the oracle given him by his mother, Themis, Titan-born. He directs her to Canobos, a city on the Nile, and tells her that there Zeus will restore her mind.

"and thou shalt bear a child

Of Zeus begotten, Epaphos, 'Touchborn,'

Swarthy of hue."

Aryan parents do not usually bear black children and to show that Æschylus was thoroughly cognizant of the ethnical relationship here implied, permit me to quote from "The Suppliants," another of his tragedies. The Suppliants were the fifty daughters of Danaus, the Shepherds of Egypt, and they described themselves as, "We, of swart sunburnt race," "our race that sprang from Epaphos," and when they appear before the Argive king, claiming his country as their ancestral home, their color causes him to question their claims in the following words:

"Nay, stranger, what ye tell is past belief

For me to hear, that ye from Argos spring;

For ye to Libyan women are most like,

And nowise to our native maidens here.

Such race might Neilos breed, and Kyprian mould,

Like yours, is stamped by skilled artificers

On women's features; and I hear that those

Of India travel upon camels borne,

Swift as the horse, yet trained as sumpter-mules,

E'en those who as the Æthiops' neighbors dwell.

And had ye borne the bow, I should have guessed,

Undoubting, ye were of the Amazon tribe."

[Pg 340]No, Æschylus made no mistake. He meant just what he wrote and the discoveries of the wonderful Minoan civilization have proven that the swarthy touch-born son of Zeus and Io was the incarnation of the African element that raised Greece to the very pinnacle of civilization. Minos is in direct descent from Epaphos and from the latter's prolific progeny we note such names as Agenor, Cadmus, Europa, Ægyptus, Danaus, Perseus, Menelaus, husband of the famous Helen, Hercules, and Agamemnon, chosen by the Greeks to lead them against Troy.

If I should conclude at this point my thesis would be complete and conclusive, but there are other subjects which demand some attention. I cannot pass in silence the supposed testimony to the presence of the fair type in Greece, and to its superiority over the darker population, furnished by the Homeric poems. This supposed testimony has precipitated wordy wars as terrible, though perhaps less sanguinary, as those which were engaged in by the gods and heroes themselves. The fault, however, lies with the translators rather than with the epics. From the work of these industrious authors we get the idea that golden hair and blue eyes were so common that there was little chance of any other sort of people lingering around. The truth of the matter is that these translators, like historians, have permitted their prejudices to warp their accuracy. There is not in the entire writings of Homer an adjective or description applying to any of the principals that even suggests a single one of them having blue eyes and golden hair. Indeed, it is quite the reverse. Athena is γλαυκωπις; γλαυκος means blue like the sea and the unclouded sky; the olive is γλαυκος also, and Athena is guardian of the olive. Γλαυκωπις means that her eyes are brilliant and terrible. Apollo in Homer is χρυσαορος, that is to say, bearing a golden sword; while ξανθος, which has been mistranslated to mean fair, means reddish brown and brown, Artemis is χρυσεη, golden, that is to say, brilliant, but never fair. Neptune is κυανοχαιτης, that is to say, bluish, blackish, like the dark and deep waves of the ocean. Eos, the dawn, is χρυσοθρονος, ροδοδακτυλος, κροκοπεπλος, because the color of the dawn is golden, rosy and red. Neither Hera nor Kalypsos is fair from the descriptive adjectives. Achilles is ξανθος which, as was said before, means reddish brown and brown. Agamemnon is also ξανθος and remember, if you please, that he is in direct descent from Epaphos, the swarthy ancestor of the Pelasgic houses.

So you see that even our translators are not to be trusted.[Pg 341] Professor Sergi made an extensive investigation of the supposed testimony to the presence of the fair type in Greece and his conclusions are as follows: "In Homer none of the individuals are fair in the ethnographic sense of the word. I could bring forth a wealth of facts to show that what I have just stated regarding the anthropological characters of the Homeric gods and heroes may also be said, and with more reason, of the types of Greek and Roman statuary which, though in the case of the divinities they may be conventionalized, do not in the slightest degree recall the features of a northern race." Hence the blue-eyed and golden-haired gods and goddesses who grace the canvases of our art galleries and theater curtains are but pigmentary creations from the minds of artists who visualize the peculiarities of their own race just as the Jewish Madonna is depicted as a Spanish, Dutch, German, English, Italian, Russian, Scandinavian, and even as an African mother by the different nationalities in turn.

Another idea which seems to be rapidly taking hold upon the scholastic mind is that the Iliad and Odyssey are in reality Minoan epics made over, if you please, to fit the later Grecian epochs. While the Homer we know professedly commemorates the deeds of Achaean heroes, everything about them is non-Hellenic. The whole picture of the civilization, including home life, dress, religious worship, and architecture, is Minoan and Mycenean. Warriors' weapons are of bronze when the age to which we attribute Homer was an iron age. The combatants use huge body shields when, as a matter of fact, such shields had been obsolete long previous to 1200 B.C. The form of worship, hymns and invocations to deities, and the use of certain sacrificial forms were all adaptations from the Mycenean ritual. The arrangements of the palaces and courts as narrated in the epics were counterparts of the Minoan and Mycenean palaces and had long since passed out of existence. Among the discoveries in Crete have been found pictorial scenes exactly as described in Homer, and the artistic representations upon the shield of Achilles and upon the shield of Hercules, as described by Hesiod, have been duplicated among the ruins of Crete. Upon intaglios recovered we find combatants striking at each other's throats and you will recollect that Achilles does just this thing in his fight with Hector. I might continue these coincidences indefinitely, but I believe that the point I desire to make is sufficiently clear to merit your attention. The great Grecian epics are[Pg 342] epics of an African people and Helen, the cause of the Trojan war, must henceforth be conceived as a beautiful brown skin girl.

In the press and periodicals of our country we read that the classics are doomed and about to pass out of our lives, but the classics can never die. I sometimes dream of a magical time when the sun and moon will be larger than now and the sky more blue and nearer to the world. The days will be longer than these days and when labor is over and there falls the great flood of light before moonrise, minds now dulled with harsh labor and commercialism will listen to those who love them as they tell stories of ages past, stories that will make them tingle with pleasure and joy. Nor will these story tellers forget the classics. They will hear the surge of the ocean in Homer and march with his heroes to the plains of Troy; they will wander with Ulysses and help him slay the suitors who betrayed the hospitality of the faithful Penelope; they will escape from Priam's burning city with Æneas, weep over Dido's love, and help him to found a nation beside the Tiber. And the translators who shall again bring into life the dead tongues will not let prejudice cloud their brains or truth make bitter their tongues. The heroes of Homer shall, like the Prince of Morocco, wear the livery of the burnished sun and be knit by binding ties to the blood of Afric's clime from whence civilization took its primal rise.

Permit me now, ladies and gentlemen, to show definitely the debt which Greece owes to the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations. Crete, as I have said before, appears to be the center from which the Mediterranean culture radiated. It is the "Mid-Sea Land," a kind of half-way house between three continents, and its geographical position makes it the logical cradle of European civilization. It is near the mainland of Greece, opposite the mouths of the Nile and in easy communication with Asia Minor, with which it was actually connected in late geological times. As I mentioned before, the civilization expanded in every direction and at the time of the conquest it had firm hold upon Greece, appearing at Mycenæ, Tiryns, Thebes, Orochomenos, and other places. That some vanguard of Aryan immigrants came into contact with this culture at its climax is plain from the evidence furnished by Homer. That they mingled with the inhabitants is certain. The later onrush about 1200 B.C. destroyed in part the civilization found there, but fortunately there was not utter destruction. These rude people[Pg 343] realized the difference between their savagery and their enemies' culture. They, too, merged with the inhabitants and formed the Grecian people of historic times. This amalgamation is clearly apparent in the Greeks to-day and because of it Count de Gobineau has called their ancestors half-breeds and mulattoes. Note, also, if you will, that Greek genius burned brightest in those parts of Greece where the Minoan elements were most thoroughly planted.

If you should inquire the source of the Minoan civilization I would first call your attention to the fact that Herodotus attributed much of the Grecian civilization to Egypt, and secondly to the opinion expressed by Sir Arthur Evans in his presidential address before the British Association last fall. "My own recent investigations," said he, "have more and more brought home to me the all pervading community between Minoan Crete and the land of Pharaohs. When we realize the great indebtedness of the succeeding classical culture of Greece to its Minoan predecessor the full significance of this conclusion will be understood. Ancient Egypt itself can no longer be regarded as something apart from general human history. Its influences are seen to lie about the very cradle of our civilization. The first quickening impulse came to Crete from the Egyptian and not from the Oriental side." Herodotus has been called the father of lies, but at this late date we again see him vindicated in a conclusion reached by the greatest living authority upon classical archeology.

Before closing I wish again to enforce the fact that the ferment creating the wonderful Grecian civilization was preeminently the ferment of African blood. Take all the archeological facts of the last fifty years and read them up or down, across or diagonally, inside and out, and this fact rises into your mind like a Banquo that will not down. Historians may distort truth and rob the African race of its historical position, but facts are everywhere throwing open the secret closets of nations and exposing ethnic skeletons that laugh and jest at our racial vanities. The Aryan savages of Europe came down upon Greece, found there a great civilization, merged with the inhabitants and builded a greater. The all but savage European of the Dark Ages knew nothing of culture save what had been taught him by the Roman legions, the heirs of the Mediterranean civilization. This little was almost forgotten until religious fanaticism started the Crusades and brought them into contact with the civilized refinement of the Arabians,[Pg 344] Moors and Saracens, likewise peoples in whose veins flowed the fiery ferment of African blood. If, as Sir Arthur Evans declares, classical students must consider origins and admit the ancient Grecians of African descent, so must they go a bit further and admit the Renaissance to have sprung because of contact between feudal Europe and African Mohammedanism. Again we must admit, no matter how bitter the taste, that the mixed race has always been the great race—the pure race always the stagnant race. One potent reason for the possible downfall of European civilization to-day is the fact that the Aryan element has proven incapable of the mighty trust. It has forgotten the everlasting lesson of history that mergence of distinct types means the perpetuation of nationalism. The sole tenet of Europe has been the domination of the world by the Caucasian and suddenly it discovers that the term Caucasian is too narrow to include both Saxon and Teuton. Hence a war for the extermination of both.

The end of the world is not near and the dream of a millennium is equidistant. The sum of all that is past is but a prelude of that which is to come. It has taken the brute a myriad of years for his gaze to reach beyond them. Civilization is a mixture of dictions and contradictions and none of us to-day is sure that we know just what it means. Through all there yet remain:

"Those first affections,

Those shadowy recollections,

Which, be they what they may,

Are yet the fountain light of all our day,—

Are yet the master-light of all our seeing,—

Upholds us, cherish and have powers to make

Our noisy years seem moments in the being

Of Eternal Silence."

I close with the hope of a time when earthly values will be measured with a justice now deemed divine. It is then that Africa and her sun-browned children will be saluted. In that day men will gladly listen with open minds when she tells how in the deep and dark pre-historic night she made a stairway of the stars so that she might climb and light her torch from the altar fires of heaven, and how she has held its blaze aloft in the hall of ages to brighten the wavering footsteps of earthly nations.

[401] This address was delivered before the Omaha Philosophical Society, April 1, 1917.

Sunday, June 8, 2008

Alexander Pushkin - Genius of Black Ancestry

Pushkin was the Russian Spring. Pushkin was the Russian morning. Pushkin was the Russian Adam. Pushkin did for us what Dante and Petrach did for Italy; what the seventeenth century giants did for France; and what Lessing, Schiller and Goethe did for Germany - A.V. Lunacharsky.

"Pushkin alone had to perform two tasks which took whole centuries and more to accomplish in other countries, namely to establish a language and to create a literature." -- I. Turgeniev.

Alexander Sergevitch Pushkin (1799-1837) was born in Moscow, but his ancestor was a Black African, and that is common knowledge in Russia.

His grandfather from the mother’s side, Ibrahim Hannibal (1697-1781) was captured by Arab slave traders from Africa and sold into slavery in Constantinople. His origin is still a matter of debate. The Russian poet and novelist, Vladimir Nabokov, claimed in 1964 that Pushkin’s ancestor came from the now defunct Sultanate of Logon, then situated on the border of present day Cameroon and Chad. This was confirmed in 1999 by a Russian team of historians and ethnographers.

Abraham was later bought in Constantinople and sent as a gift for Tsar Peter I of Russia who adopted him. His name, Ibrahim, was later changed to Abraham and he was given the surname of Hannibal, after the great Black Carthaginian general who nearly destroyed Rome.

Abraham Hannibal was very brilliant and was sent to study in Paris where he became a favorite of the ladies. He later became one of Russia's greatest military engineers and rose to become a general in the Russian army. The Black general was very loyal to Tsar Peter I and after his death, refused to take part in the court intrigues, for which he had to undergo sixteen years of exile in Siberia and China. When Anna, Peter I's niece later came to the throne, she honored Abraham Hannibal, and lavished many gifts on him. As a military engineer, the illustrious African drew plans for a canal to link Moscow and St. Petersburg. The Empress Anna also made him General-in-Chief and awarded him the title of the Order of St. Alexander Nevski.

His first wife was a Greek woman who was unfaithful to him. She created a scandal by giving birth to a "white baby," much to the displeasure of the African general who took care of the baby, nevertheless. He claimed, however, that the child was not his.

His second wife was a Livonian named Khristina Sheserkha. They had eleven children, of whom five sons and four daughters survived. One of his sons, Ivan became a great admiral and built the fortress at Kherson. Another son, Joseph, a naval Commander, married Nadezhda, the daughter of Count Pushkin. She was the mother of Alexander Pushkin.

By the age of 21, Alexander Pushkin had become Russia's most popular writer. His first literary success was the romantic poem Ruslan and Lyudmila (1820). Some of his great works include Eugene Onegin, Boris Godunov, The Captain's daughter, The Prisoner of the Caucasus, and The Ode to Liberty.

According to J.A. Rogers:

To Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin belongs the unique distinction of welding together and elevating a great European language. Before his day the Russian language was half-formed, and disdained, being used chiefly by the enslaved serfs and the masses. The educated and the elite spoke and wrote in French.

When the Russian uses his language he is more indebted to Pushkin than Anglo-Saxons are to Shakespeare. But for him, Tolstoi, Dostoevski, Gogol, Gorky, Lenin, and other famous Russian writers might have written in French instead of in Russian. Pushkin, in the fullest sense, is "The Father of Russian Literature."

Pushkin also used his satirical wit against many people in Russia, including the Tsar, and in the process created many enemies. He was called the "cricket," and had to fight many duels. Slavery (Serfdom) was then widespread in Russia. Often, families were broken up because of this vile system. Pushkin used his talent to attack Serfdom.

His enemies often made fun of his African ancestry: "There goes the Negro, a descendant of cannibals," prompting Pushkin to write in jest: " An ever-idle scapegrace, a hideous descendant of Negroes, brought up in savage simplicity. ...knowing naught of the sufferings of love, I pleasure the young beauties with the unbridled furies of my African passion." Pushkin was in fact, a playboy.

Unable to match his wit, his enemies decided to destroy him through his wife, the young and beautiful Natasha (Nikolayevna Goncharova). It was said that the Tsar Nicholas himself was in love with her because of her beauty.

Pushkin married her when she was sixteen years old. She was a flirt and was only concerned with displaying her beauty at parties. Although she bore him four children, they were incompatible.

She later fell in love with Baron d'Anthes, the son of the French ambassador. He was the same age as Natasha. Her extramarital affairs led to many gossips, mostly fed by his enemies. Pushkin, having had enough decided to defend her honor and challenged Baron George d'Anthes to a duel.

When the two met, the Frenchman fired first at Pushkin, and he was struck a mortal blow in the abdomen. Pushkin fired back a few minutes later at the Baron but the wound was not serious. Two days later Pushkin died from the wounds he had sustained.

Ordinary Russians were filled with great anger and the Tsar, afraid of a demonstration, ordered his soldiers to maintain order. Among other things, newspapers were ordered to publish only brief notices of Alexander Pushkin's death. A private funeral was, however, held by the government in his honor.

So ended the life of one of the world's greatest literary figures. Pushkin regarded his Black ancestry with great pride; he was very proud of his African ancestor. His work, The Negro of Peter the Great, was in progress before his untimely death.

Says Rogers: "Descendants of Pushkin have married into the royal families of Germany, Russia, Luxemburg, Italy, and England."

available ebook-Retake Your Fame:Black Contribution to World Civilization. Vol. 1 (Revised Edition) to World Civilization Vol. 1 rev. ed.

This is an ebook I've worked on for a while and it contains very valuable information and the price is affordable. This is a revised edition of the original work available at many online book stores and is recommended. In the future I hope to offer some free ebooks.







CHAPTER 1: THE BEAUTY OF BLACKNESS – Black is a very powerful color; the founders of the world religions were Blacks, as well as many of the earliest gods and goddesses: Krishna of India, Jesus Christ, Tyr of Scandinavia, etc. The wonderful properties of melanin are also discussed.

CHAPTER 2: THE HIDDEN TRUTH – Much of the information contained in the book is summarized; the origin of the term “Nigger” is also explained.

CHAPTER 3: AFRICA, THE MOTHER OF CIVILIZATION – Discusses the etymology of “Africa;” Ancient Egypt (Kam) was a Black civilization; many renowned Greeks like Pythagoras, Dioscorides and Galen, studied under Black Egyptian priests; the Sphinxes have black visages.

CHAPTER 4: BUILDERS OF CHRISTIANITY – Ethiopia is the first nation mentioned in the Bible; Africa had Popes before Europe; many of the renowned Saints in history were Blacks, etc.

CHAPTER 5: THE STOLEN AND DISTORTED AFRICAN RELIGIONS – The foundations of the world’s major religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam originated from the Black race; Jesus Christ was Black; The Swastika, Cross and Ankh were ancient symbols of the Black race; Moses’ Ten Commandments originated in Africa; etc.

CHAPTER 6: THE BLACK PRESENCE IN BIBLICAL ANTIQUITY – The garden of Eden was located in Africa, the origin of humanity and not in Mesopotamia; The Bible is a book that deals mostly with the Black race; Abraham, the Father of the Hebrews was from Ur of the Chaldees and the Chaldees were Blacks; Blacks are a blessed race despite the so-called “Hamitic Curse;” the Hebrews were Blacks; the Black Madonna was worshipped throughout Europe and other parts of the world.

CHAPTER 7: THE GREAT BLACK WARRIORS – Discusses great Black warriors throughout history. The great Byzantine ruler, Nicephore Phocas, was Black; Rome had many Black warriors in their armies; Macrinus, a Black warrior, rose to become Emperor of Rome; Blacks fought in the Trojan War; Blacks have fought and distinguished themselves in all of America’s Wars, as well as in the World Wars, etc.

CHAPTER 8: THE BLACK PRESENCE IN AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS – Christopher Columbus was not the discoverer of the Americas; Blacks are the original race of the Americas; the “mysterious” Mound Builders were not Amerindians but Blacks just like the Olmecs of Meso America, etc.

CHAPTER 9: THE MOORISH CIVILIZATION OF EUROPE – The original Moors who conquered parts of Spain and Portugal (Iberia) in the 8th century were Blacks; the term “Moor” means Black. However, over the centuries, due to intermixture, the term “Moor” was also applied to lighter-skinned peoples (the Tawny Moors). Blacks were referred to as Blackamoors. The Moors, due to their remarkable erudition, uplifted Europe from the “Dark Ages” and helped usher in the renaissance, etc.

CHAPTER 10: BLACK ARTISTIC INFLUENCE – Blacks have influenced global artistic forms, in music, art, etc. Claude Debussy, George Gershwin, Anton Dvorak, Stephen Foster and many others have been influenced by Black music; The Blues, produced from African work songs and Spiritual music, has had a great effect on American music; Ragtime, Jazz, and Rock n Roll were the creation of Blacks; Elvis Presley was influenced by Black music; Other Black musical forms include Funk, Rap and Hip-Hop; The Central American Cumbia, The Samba (Brazil’s national dance), the Cuban Son, Rumba, Mambo, Merengue, Candombey, Calypso, etc, were all Black creations.

CHAPTER 11: FERTILE BLACK MINDS – Discusses many Black inventions such as the alphabet, medicine, etc.

CHAPTER 12: ANCIENT BLACK CIVILIZATIONS – Touches on the many Black civilizations that once thrived throughout the world, in Asia (India, China, Japan, Vietnam, etc.), Africa, Mesopotamia, Europe, etc. We learn, for instance, that the earliest inhabitants of the British Isles and Ireland were Blacks, namely, the Firbolgs, Nemedians, Picts, Tuatha de Danann, and so on. These “pygmies” are the leprechauns, dwarfs, brownies and so on of European legends, etc.

CHAPTER 13: THE HIDDEN GREAT BLACK MEN AND WOMEN – It is a little-known fact that many famous men and women of antiquity who have passed as Whites were Blacks or had Black intermixture. They include Beethoven, the Dumas family, Circe of Greek mythology, Joseph Hayden and Alexander Pushkin, etc.

CHAPTER 14: BLACK RESISTANCE TO FOREIGN DOMINATION – Africans have fought courageously throughout history to protect themselves from heartless invaders; Hannibal was Black and there are coins to prove it, etc.

CHAPTER 15: BLACK SLAVE REVOLTS – Blacks never willingly accepted their role as slaves, and the massive slaves revolt from Iraq to the Americas IS A TESTAMENT to this fact.



Saturday, June 7, 2008

Were the Ancient Britons Blacks?

Blacks being the original race once occupied virtually every corner of the globe. Britain was no exception. The Grimaldi African man is known to have occupied Europe in ancient times. Blacks have been living in Britain from prehistoric times to the present era.

Irish tradition tells of a giant-like race of Africans headed by a king with a retinue of priests called Fomorians. They were depicted as gloomy sea giants who brought their skills from Africa via Spain. The original Celtic priesthood were Blacks.

The Roman historian, Tacitus, mentioned "the dark complexion and unusually curly hair" of the Silures, or Black Celts who he believed migrated there from Spain. When Julius Caesar invaded Britain he met these Blacks. Julius Caesar's army was itself composed of prominent Blacks. In fact Blacks have served as Roman emperors on a number of occasions.

The Scots are themselves of Black origin. Ireland was once known as Scotia Magna and Scotland was called Caledonia until about the third century A.D. when a tribe invaded Caledonia and the name was changed to Scotia. The Irish are said to have derived the name Scotia from the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh named Scota.

The construction of Stonehenge has been attributed to giants who sailed from Africa bringing their skills with them. The presence of giants may not necessarily be a figment of the imagination. Giants have been mentioned in the Bible. There was a Black Canaanite race called Anakim. When the Black Hebrews first saw them they realized how small they were themselves: "And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.” (Numbers 13:33).

Anak was a Black giant, a descendant of Canaan, the youngest son of Ham. Ham is widely believed to be the ancestor of the Black race. There are other Black giants mentioned in the Bible. These are the Enim and Zamzummin, from which group Goliath and his brother emerged.

The Formorians are believed to be Carthaginian pirates and/or traders. Carthage was a Phoenician colony. Attempts have been made to classify them as Semites. They belonged to the Black race.

Phoenicia or Canaan was a Black civilization before the migration of Indo-Europeans. After the dispersal from the Tower of Babel, Canaan, Ham's youngest son, moved to Palestine which was then uninhabited. They called the land Canaan. The Canaanites were a very gifted people who built great cities such as Jericho. Canaan's first son, Sidon, became the father of the Sidonians or Phoenicians. When the Black Hebrews invaded their land most of the Canaanites fled Palestine to Africa.

Because of their seafaring prowess the Black Egyptians entrusted them with the responsibility of providing them with their materials. They sailed to Cyprus for copper, the Iberian Peninsula for silver, to the Americas before the birth of Columbus and as far as Britain for tin.

C.A. Diop in his work, The African Origin of Civilization made reference to the megaliths. He said, "These are found only in lands inhabited by Negroes or Negroids, or in places that they have frequented, the area that Speiser calls “the great megalithic civilization,” which extends from Africa to India, Australia, South America, Spain and Brittany. It is known that the menhirs and dolmens of Brittany date back to an epoch of an agricultural and copper civilization. Moreover, Spain and Brittany were stopovers for the Phoenicians, a Negroid group, en route to pick up tin from the British mines. That megalithic civilization in Brittany belongs to the second millennium, the period when the Phoenicians frequented those regions. This combination of facts should leave no doubt on the southern and Negro origin of the megaliths in Brittany."

The Phoenicians were also commissioned by the Egyptian King Necho II (Nekau II) to sail around Africa. This was 2100 years before Vasco da Gama attempted a similar feat when in 1497 and 1499 he sailed from Portugal to India and back again around the Cape of Good Hope.

According to Herodotus, “…the Egyptian King Neco... sent out a fleet manned by a Phoenician crew with orders to sail round and return to Egypt and the Mediterranean by the pillars of Heracles. The Phoenicians sailed from the Red Sea into the southern ocean... and after two full years rounded the Pillars of Heracles in the course of the third, and returned to Egypt.”

The Basques in Spain are considered to be a branch of the colony founded there by Black Africans. Their language is totally different from any in Spain and for that matter in Europe.

Blacks are also mentioned in Welsh folk-tales, such as in the story of Peredur in The Mabinogion. They are sometimes referred to in unflattering terms, as ugly, giants, misshapen and oppressors.

The original knights of Europe including the Knights of King Arthur's round table were Blacks. There was an African, Gormund who ruled Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Saxons. There were also Blacks among the Vikings. The first King to unite Norway was Black. He was known as Halfdan the Black. He was not called Black simply because of the color of his hair but because he was dark-skinned.

The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus who led a conquest of Britain was a full-blooded African, born in North Africa.

One of the Black Vikings was known as Thorhall, living at the time of Eric the Red. He was among the crew that took the Vikings to the shores of North America before the birth of Columbus. He has been described as “a large man, and strong, black and like a giant, silent and foul-mouthed in his speech, and always egged on Eric to the worst, he was a bad Christian.”

The Black Britons were sometimes referred to as “shameless Irish robbers,” and the word “Scot” came to be synonymous with “vagabond.”

On the origin of the word “Blackmail,” David MacRitchie tells us that, “the expression applied by the inhabitants of Wales to the tribute exacted from their prince, Meredith, by the Danish pirates [Black Danes] of the year 987 A.D., virtually signified “black-mail.” And, moreover, “the tribute of the blacke armie” precisely phrases the tax paid by Theodosius to Rugilas, King of the Huns, five centuries before. It was black-mail. That is the origin of the term. Dane-gelt was black-mail, equally with the tribute paid to the black Huns by the Romans."

However, Whites did not consider Blacks in Early Europe as being all evil and dangerous. David MacRitchie cites a writer in Ancient and Modern Britons, who claimed that, “in so far as I have been able to observe, the black race is superior to the fair in stature and respect to intellect, they are acute, accurate observers of natural phenomena, quick of apprehension and fluent in speech. In their moral character they are at least much superior to the population of most of the lowland parishes.”

The Scottish historian David MacRitchie, further tells us that Alpin, the father of Kenneth MacAlpin (Mac means son of) was half Scottish Black and half Pictish Black. Kenneth (the son) was the first to unite the two primary branches of Blacks in Scotland.

In the African Origin of Civilization by Cheikh Anta Diop, we are told that “The King of Ghana was called Maga,” and that the word could have originated as far back as the Third Century B.C. like the Sarakole language. In the second volume of Ancient and Modern Britons, were are presented with “Maga Dubh,” which in the Scottish language of the time meant “Black King.”

Two British writers, Gerald Massey and Godfrey Higgins believe that Blacks built Stonehenge. Gerald Massey (In Volume I of his work, A Book of the Beginnings claims that Stonehenge was built by a Black architect known as Morien. He says, “Now, as a Negro is still known as a MORIEN in English, may not this indicate that MORIEN belonged to the black race, the Kushite builders?”

Godfrey Higgins says in the first Volume of Anacalypsis, “In my Essay on The Celtic Druids, I have shewn, that a great nation called the Celtae, of whom the Druids were the priests, spread themselves almost over the whole earth, and are to be traced in their rude gigantic monuments from India to the extremity of Britain. Who these can have been but the early individuals of the black nation of whom we have been treating I know not, and in this opinion I am not singular. The learned Maurice says, "Cushites, i.e. Celts, built the great temples in India and Britain, and excavated the caves of the former." And the learned Mathematician, Ruben Burrow, has no hesitation in pronouncing Stonehenge to be a temple of the black, curly-headed Buddha."